Boards

Hormone

Type

Source Male

Source Female

Action

Progesterone

Steroid

NA

Thecal cells

Large luteal cells

Corpus luteum

Maintain pregnancy

Estrogen

Steroid

(Sertoli cell)

Granulosa cell

Follicle

Estrus signs

Release LH

Testosterone

Steroid

Interstitial cells of Leydig

NA

Masculine characteristics.

Needed for sperm production

GnRH

decapeptide

hypothalamus

hypothalamus

Releases FSH and LH

(mostly LH)

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

glycoprotein

Anterior pituitary

Anterior pituitary

Growth of follicle past antral stage in female.

Stimulates sperm cell production in male.

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

glycoprotein

Anterior pituitary

Anterior pituitary

Female - causes ovulation

Female (maintains CL function in some)

Male - stimulates testosterone

Prolactin

glycoprotein

Anterior pituitary

Anterior Pituitary

Female - bitch-luteotropic

inhibin

protein

Sertoli cells

Follicle - Granulosa cells

Male - inhibits FSH to decrease sperm production

Female- inhibits FSH to prevent more follicular growth

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

glycoprotein

na

na

Used to induce ovulation in mares and cats.

Old treatment for follicular cysts in cows

Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)

glycoprotein

na

Equine only- endometrial cups.

Placental growth into endometrium.

30-120 days pregnancy.

Sloughed immunologically

Luteinizes growing follicles in pregnant mares to make secondary and accessory CLs

Melatonin

Indole amine

pineal

pineal

Seasonality

Prostaglandin

20 carbon acid

na

endometrium

Lysis of CL

Oxytocin

Nonapeptide (9 aa)

na

Posterior pituitary

Milk letdown.

Luteolysis.

Relaxin

protein

na

Placenta in bitch.

CL in pig? & stallion?

Relaxation of birth canal

 

 
 

Canine

Feline

Bovine

Equine

Ovine

Caprine

Porcine

Seasonal?

no

Long days

Polyestrus

No

Polyestrus

Long days

Polyestrus

Short days

Polyestrus

Short days

Polyestrus

No

Polyestrus

Male/Female

Dog/bitch

Tom/queen

Cow (heifer)/ bull

Stallion/Mare

Ram/ewe

Buck/doe

Boar/sow(gilt)

Castrated

Dog ( a sad one)

cat

steer

gelding

wether

wether

barrow

Parturition

whelp

queen

cavling

foaling

lambing

kidding

farrowing

Offspring

pup

kitten

calf

Foal (fillie, colt)

lamb

kid

piglet

Puberty

6 mo

6 mo

Depends on time of season born)

12 mo

60 % mature wt

12-18 m

6 mo

(Depends on time of season born)

6 mo

(Depends on time of season born)

5-6 m

Estrous cycle length

na

na

21 d

21 d

(14 day diestrus)

   

21 d

Estrus length

9 d

(9d proesrus

9 day estrus)

8-10 d

1-2 d proesrus

May have :

1) diestrus if ovulates

2) interestrus followed by estrus if no ovulation

3) anestrus if no ovulation and season ends.

24 h

5-7 d

Shorter in summer

24-36 h

24-36 h

2-3 d

Artificial Insemination

Vaginal

Fresh - EOD

Chilled - 3 and 5 or 4 and 6 after LH peak (determined by initial P4 rise)

Frozen - 5 or 6 d after LH peak

Vaginal

Rare - induce ovulation

AM/PM rule -

See in morning, breed in evening etc.

 

Intrauterine

With 35 mm follicle.

Intrauterine.

500 million cells.

Induce ovulation with hCG or GnRH analog (Ovulplant)

Rare in US

AM/PM rule

Rare in US/

AM/PM rule

Corkscew AI pipette into cervix.

Breed on days 2 and 3

Gestation

65 from LH

63 from ovulation

57 from 1st d diestrus

66 d

282 d

330 d

150 d

150 d

114 d

Pregnancy recognition

none

none

Interferon tau

(btp-1)

Unknown

PGE ?

otp-1

Cpt-1 ?

Estrogen from embryo is luteotropic and redirects PGF to uterine lumen away from CLs

Pregnancy diagnosis

Palpate 21-28 days from diestrus.

Ultrasound day 12 diestrus. (Heartbeat 24 d)

Relaxin blood test- > day 30

Palpate 21-28 days.

Ultrasound

Palpate- day 35 (FMS, AV, fetus, cotyledons are positive signs)

Ultrasond - day 24 - 28 d

Milk P4- 18-22 d after estrus (80% false +)

Palpate - 35 d

Ultrasound - 12 days. (heartbeat 24 d)

Ultrasound - 24 d

Ultrasound - 24 d

Ultrasound - a and b mode. external

Cl needed throughout pregnancy

Yes

Yes

No

No

Secondary Cls 30-120 days.

Placenta 120 on

No

Yes

Yes

Induction of abortion

PGF

Dexamethosone

Prolactin inhibitors (bromocriptine, cabergoloine)

PGF after day 30

PGF before 3 mo.

Estrogen/corticosteroid 2-6 mo.

Cortocosteroid 6 m - term

 

PGF before day 30.

Multiple PGF day 30 -120.

Manual after day 120.

PGF before day 50.

After day 50 dexamethasone

PGF

PGF

Induction of parturition

na

na

PGF

Dexamethasone (retained placenta common)

Oxytocin- if milk Ca is > 400 (200) ppm, 330 days, relaxed ligaments

Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone

PGF and oxytocin @ 112 days

Ovulation

3-4 d of estrus

Estrus (induced)

18 after end estrus.

24-30 h after LH peak

Out of estrus 2 days after ovulation

24- 30h after onset estrus.

24-30 h after LH peak

24- 30h after onset estrus.

24-30 h after LH peak

Day 2 estrus

Induction of estrus

Ensure 150 days interestrus.

DES 5 days.

Prolactin inhibitors (cabergoline, bromocriptine)

FSH

 

Out of season. Lights on Dec 1 16 hours.

Out of season.

Progesterone/FSH or eCG

Out of season.

Progesterone/FSH or eCG

PG 600

(eCG + LH)

Other

6 month interestrus

Induced ovulator (depends on time of mating, number of matings and mating interval)

     

Progesterone/FSH or eCG

 

Estrus synchronization

na

HCG or GnRH to induce ovulation

11 day double injection of PGF.

Progestagen for 14 days

PGF or

14 days ReguMate (allytrenbolone)

PGF or

Progestagens for 10-14 days

PGF or

Progestagens for 10-14 days

Breed and abort with PGF.

5-7 days post weaning.

First postpartum estus

na

2 wk (some say depends on nursing kittens - nursing is longer)

21 days dairy

2 m beef - depends on nutrution

9 days

na

Progestagens for 10-14 days

5-7 days post weaning

Embryo transfer

Not done

Not done

Collect at 7 days and transfer to synchronized recipient non surgical.

Collect at 7 days and transfer to synchronized recipient non surgical.

Non surgical collecton.

Surgical implant.

Non surgical collection.

Surgical implant.

Surgical

Common problems

Pyometra during diestrus.

Dx - hi WBC, left shift, isostehnuria, hi BUN

Rx - prostaglandins

Pyometra during diestrus or anestrus.

Dx - WBC depends on progesterone (higher during diestrus), BUN

Rx - prostaglandins

Pyometra - fluid filled uterus with pus and CL

Rx- PGF

Reatained placenta > 4-6 h

Rx- oxytocin or fill placenta.

Sequel - laminitis

Ringwomb - cervix does not dlate -

Rx - C-section

Surgical implant.

 
 

Breeding management - counting days

"Persistent estrus" caused by short intersetrus interval if ovulation not induced.

Cysts (follicular) -> 2.5 cm fluid filled w/o CL

Rx - GnRH to luteinize (may follow with PGF in 10 -14 d for luteolysis)

Delayed uterine clearance.

All mares infected at breeding. Some cannot clear.

Rx- oxytocin and/or uterine flush.

 

Pseudocyesis (cloudburst)

Rush of fluid at expected parturition in a non pregnant doe.

Mummies - indicates parvovirus infection.

 

Brucella canis- abortion, stillbirth, orchitis.

Dx - RSAT - 60 % false +.

AGID - more definitive.

Culture definitive.

 

Estrus detection problems

       
 

Pseudopregnancy (overt), Pseudogentra-

Milk and psychologic behavior at expected whelping in non pregnant bitch.

           

 

 

Bull

Stallion

Boar

Dog

Cat

Testis orientation

cauda down

cauda down

perineal, cauda up

horizontal

perineal, cauda up

Ampullae

cauda down

cauda down

_

+?

_

Seminal vesicle

+

+

+

_

_

Prostate

+

+

+

+

+

Bulbourethral gland

+

+

++

_

+

Penis type

fibroelastic

vascular

fibroelastic

vascular, os

vascular, os

Copulation duration

1 second

20 sec

6 min

20 min

seconds

Volume (typical)

5 cc

60 cc

200 cc

20 cc

0.04 cc

Sperm conc.

1.2

.10

.15

NA

1.7

Total cells in ejaculate

6

6

30

.5

0.057

Site of semen deposition in female

vagina

cervix / uterus

cervix

vagina

vagina

 

Abortion table prepared by Dr. Sandra Murton in 2001

Abortion Agent

BOVINE

Species affected

Time of abortion

Clinical signs and lesions

Treatment and prevention

Neospora

Dairy cows

Abortion storms

>3mo, most occur 4-6 mo

Myocarditis and encephalitis

None, hygiene

Bovine Viral Diarrhea

Most commonly diagnosed virus in bovine abortion cases

42-125 d abortion or resorption, >125 d, abortion, mummification, or clear virus

None, herd serology if not recently vaccinated

Removal of persistently affected cattle, and herd vaccination

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis

Bovine Herpesvirus 1

Cow with a positive IBR titer is a carrier

4 mo to term

Carried to placenta in WBC

Placentitis 2 wk- 4 mo then infects fetus and kills it in 24hr

Necrotic cotyledons, yellow edematous intercotyledonary areas. Autolyzed fetus w/necrotic foci on liver

Herd vaccination; intranasal, modified live virus and killed virus vaccines are available

Leptospirosis

Bovine

Last trimester 2-6 wk after maternal infection

Fetus dies 1-2 days before expulsion

Diffuse placentitis, tan cotyledons and edematous intercotyledonary areas

Phase-contrast leptospires and fluorescent antibody

Remove feed and water contaminated by dogs, rats or wildlife

L. hardjo lifelong carriers

Vaccination every 6mo

zoonotic

Brucellosis

Bovine

Abortion or stillbirth

2nd half of gestation (7mo) enter via mucous membranes

Normal or autolytic fetus with bronchopneumonia, red to yellow cotyledons

Serology with fluorescent antibody of placenta and fetus

Test, slaughter, heifer vaccination

zoonotic

 

 

 

 

Mycotic Abortion

 

 

 

 

Aspergillus, Mucor, Absisia, Rhizopus

Sporadic abortion

 

 

 

 

4mo to term

oral or respiratory lesions, hematogenous spread to placenta.

Often in winter

 

 

 

 

Necrotizing placentitis, thick leathery intercotyledonary areas, adventitious placentation. Dehydrated fetus

 

 

 

 

Fetal skin lesions, hyphae, (especially on eyelids).

Avoid feeding moldy feed

Actinomyces pyogenes

Sporadic abortion. Present on mucous membranes of normal cows

Last trimester

Autolyzed fetus, fibrinous pericarditis, pleuritis or peritonitis

Endometritis and placentitis. Culture from placenta or abomasal contents

No effective bacterin is available

Trichomonas

Venereal disease and infertility, occasional abortion

1st half of gestation

Mild placentitis with hemorrhagic cotyledons, flocculent exudate in intercotydedonary areas

Prevented by AI using non-infected bulls

Campylobacter

Veneralis

 

 

Fetus

Venereal disease and infertility, occasional abortion

Ingestion and hematogenous spread

5-8 mo of gestation

Sporadic abortion

Darkfield examination of abomasal contents, histopathology

Venereal transmission controlled by AI and vaccination

Listeria

Sporadic abortions

Any stage of gestation

Dam may have fever and anorexia before abortion

Fetus retained 2-3 days after death, autolytic

Pinpoint microabcesses on fetal liver, necrosis of cotyledons and intercotyledonary areas

Culture from fetus or placenta

No available bacterin

Zoonosis

Reportable disease

 

 

 

 

Chlamydiosis

 

 

 

 

Sporadic abortion

 

 

 

 

After 4th month of gestation, usually last trimester

 

 

 

 

Placentitis, fetal pneumonia and hepatitis

Stained smears of cotyledons or culture

 

 

 

 

Ovine chlamydial vaccine has been used in cattle

Epizootic Bovine Abortion

Foothill abortion in California

Last trimester

Argasid tick vector

Seldom autolyzed, hepatomegaly, granulomatous nodular areas and lymphomegaly

Fetal IgG increased

Cows seldom abort in subsequent pregnancies. Expose heifers to endemic areas before breeding age.

 

 

SHEEP

Time to abortion

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Treatment and prevention

Campylobacter fetus (Vibriosis)

Late pregnancy or stillbirths

Metritis after abortion, placentitis, hemmorhagic necrotic cotyledons

Fetus autolyzed, orange-yellow necrotic foci on liver

Hygiene, vaccination, tetracycline helps prevent exposed ewes from aborting

Enzootic abortion of ewes

(Chlamydia psittaci)

Late abortions, stillbirths, weak lambs

Giemsa stain of placenta or vaginal discharge for elementary bodies

Fresh fetus, but necrotic cotyledons, thick intercotyledonary areas with exudate

Isolate all affected ewes and lambs

tetracycline

Killed ovine chlamydial vaccine

Toxoplasmosis

Early in gestation; resorption or mummification

Late; abortion or perinatal death

Gray-white foci on cotyledons

Serology

Fetal brain leukoencephalomalacia on histology

Once infected, ewes are immune

Remove cats from area

zoonosis

Listeriosis

Late gestation

 

zoonotic

Necrosis or cotyledons and intercotyledonary area

Autolyzed fetus, necrotic foci on fetal liver and lung

Culture

Penicillin G,

Vaccination

Separate animals, avoid feeding silage

Brucellosis

B. melitensis

B. abortus

Late gestation

Placentitis with edema and necrosis of cotyledons

Autolized fetus

Culture of placenta, abomasal contents, ewes vaginal discharge

Vaccine for B. melitensis

zoonotic

Salmonellosis

Stress related

Ewes are sick and febrile before aborting

Fetus is autolyzed

Culture placenta, fetus or uterine discharge

Cull carriers

 

 

GOATS

Time to abortion

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Treatment and prevention

Chlamydia

Late gestation Most common infectious abortion in goats

Autolyzed or fresh fetus without specific lesions

White to yellow necrotic foci on cotyledons and intercotyledonary areas

Natural immunity lasts 3 yrs

Sheep vaccine

tetracyclines

Toxoplasmosis

Similar to ewes

See above

   

Leptospirosis

gryppotyphosa

Sheep resistant, goats susceptible

Abort at time of leptospiremia

Anemia, icterus, hemoglobinemia

serology

chlortetracycline

Brucellosis

B.melitensis

Fourth month

Normal placenta

Chronic uterine lesions

Lifelong infection with organisms shed in the milk

Test and slaughter (card test)

zoonotic

Listeriosis

Sporadic abortion

No specific fetal lesions

autolytic

Doe may develop metritis after abortion

Tetracycline in herd outbreaks

 

PIGS

Time to abortion

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Treatment and prevention

 

Time to abortion

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Treatment

Porcine Parvovirus

<70 days mummification or increased stillbirths

Abortions are rare b/c endometrium not affected

Fluorescent antibody test of mummies

Killed vaccines

Natural immunity is lifelong

Porcine enteroviurs

Mummificationearly embryonic death, stillbirths

Fecal-oral transmission

Immunofluorescence of fetal tissues

No vaccine available

Pseudorabies

Abortion at any stage of gestation

Stillbirths, mummification, early embryonic death

Fluorescent antibody or virus isolation

Vaccinate every 6 mo

Cull as carriers

Eradication programs

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome

Late term abortions, stillbirths, weak neonates

Respiratory disease, anorexia, vomiting

Umbilical cord vasculitis

Virus isolation

Viral antigen testing

No treatment

Isolate new pigs

Vaccine for piglets and non-pregnant sows

Japanese B Encephalitis virus

Not in USA

SMEDI

Teratogenic

Modified live virus vaccine

Hog cholera

Not in USA

Severe maternal illness-abortion

Mild maternal illness-SMEDI

Vaccinate

Letptospirosis

L. interrogans pomona

Abortion 1-4wk after infection

Mummificationmaceration, stillbirths, weak pigs "squeakers"

Leptospires in fetal tissues or stomach contents

Vaccination every 6mo

Streptomycin to eliminate carrier state

Brucellosis

B.suis

Any stage of gestation

Endometritis and fetal infection

Fetus may be autolyzed

Serology

Test and slaughter

 

 

HORSES

Time to abortion

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Treatment

Equine Rhinopneumonitis

Abortion after 7mo of gestation

No signs in mare, fetal subcutaneous edema, jaundice, incr. Volume of thoracic fluid

Intranuclear inclusions in necrotic lymphoid tissues and liver

Fluorescent antibody or fetal serology

Vaccinate at 5, 7 and 9 months of gestation

Prevent exposure to horses attending shows

Equine Viral Arteritis

Abortion follows clinical cases by 6 to 29 days

May be found in fetal myocardium or no lesions

Venereal or aerosol spread

Vaccine in some states

Bacterial Abortions:

       

Potomac Horse Fever Ehrlichia risticii

Mid to late gestation

Fetal lymphoid tissues

Vaccination but

efficiency in preventing abortion is unknown

Ascending infections

Streptococcus, e.coli, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella

Placentitis, brown exudate near cervical star

Severe autolysis

Culture from stomach contents

None

Mycotic infections

Aspergillus, Mucor, Candida

Ascending infection

Thickened chorioallantois with variable exudate

Pale enlarged liver or dermatitis

Fetuses aborted in late gestation may be fresh, with growth retardation

Hyphae in placenta, liver, lung, or stomach

None

 

 

 

 
contributed by Bruce E Eilts on 25 September 2012




 

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