Learner Objectives Semen Analysis

Describe how to perform gross and individual motility on semen sample of different species.

Describe how to make sperm morphology slides with Theriogenology stain and with formalin buffered saline.

Describe the basic sperm abnormalities.

Describe how to do a sperm count using a hemacytometer (including dilutions).

Know how to extend stallion and canine semen appropriately.

Know how to package stallion and canine semen for shipment. 

Learner Objectives Basic Reproduction

Describe the embryologic formation of the reproductive system.

Be able to classify hormones based on location, action, structure

Describe basic steroidogenesis and the how the two compartment theory fits.

Describe the stages of the estrous cycle.

Describe a 'generic' estrous cycle.

Describe the hormonal events of final follicular maturation and ovulation.

Describe the events of luteolysis in a generic species.

Describe the events of pregnancy recognition and mechanism that prevents luteal regression in the cow, horse, and pig.

Describe the formation of the corpus luteum after ovulation.

Understand the concepts and relationships between site of sperm deposition, establishment and location of a sperm reservoir, and sperm transport in the female reproductive tract.

Describe the role of capacitation and the acrosome reaction in fertilization.

Describe the basic events in fertilization from interaction of the spermatozoa and the oocyte to blastocoele formation.

Describe the basic events in embryogenesis and formation of the extraembryonic membranes.

Describe the events of maternal recognition of pregnancy and the mechanisms that prevent luteolysis in the cow, sow, and mare.

Describe the classification schemes of placentation (gross morphology and histologic description). Know the classification of the placenta for each domestic animal species.

Describe the main hormone of pregnancy, when implantation occurs in each species, and if/when placental support of pregnancy maintenance occurs in each species (i.e., if the CL is not needed to maintain pregnancy for the entire gestation, when does placental support take over.)

Describe the hormonal events involved with parturition in CL-dependent or CL-nondependent species. Describe the stages of parturition.

Describe the definition of puberty in males and females, and what factors modify the onset of puberty.

Be able to discuss the concept of seasonality of the estrous cycle. Contrast the effects of melatonin in the ewe and the mare.

Understand the role of estrogen, progesterone, prolactin, and oxytocin in lactation.

Be able to discuss the anatomy and embryology of the male reproductive system.

 Be able to discuss erection and ejaculation in domestic animals.

 Be able to discuss the methods of scrotal cooling.

 Be able to discuss the mechanism of action of Viagra.

 Be able to discuss spermatogenenesis.

 Be able to discuss sperm formation.

 Be able to discuss sperm maturation in the epididymus.

 Be able to discuss hormonal control of male reproduction.

 Be able to discuss sperm cycles, stages and waves.

 Be able to discuss the microscopic anatomy of the seminiferous tubules.

Dr. Godke

     Define and understand the basic concept of ART

     Define and understand the basic concept of IVF

     Define and understand the basic concept of  TUGA

     Define and understand the basic concept of  ICSI

     Define and understand the basic concept of  SUZI

Describe the basic technique in producing a clone (nuclear transfer) and the major problem with their production. *

Describe the basic steps involved in somatic cell nuclear transfer.*

Describe the basic steps involved in producing (the way described in class) a transgenic offspring. *

Name some species that have been cloned from adult somatic cells .*

 

 

 

 

 

Learner Objectives -

Small Animal Reproduction

Canine

Describe the canine estrous cycle including physical signs, hormonal events, vaginal cytology and the interestus period.

Describe canine pregnancy, including the duration, hormones, initiation, and diagnosis.

Discuss dystocia in the bitch.

Discuss psuedopregnancy in the dog.

Discuss breeding management of the bitch with fresh, cooled shipped, and frozen semen.

Discuss retained placenta, metritris and subinvolution of the placental sites in the bitch.

Know the basics of eclampsia, mastitis, and metritis as rule outs (not necessarily the treatments etc).

Discuss estrus prevention and induction of estrus in the bitch.

Discuss canine mismate management and induction of abortion in the bitch.

Discuss pyometra in the bitch.

Discuss Brucella canis in the canine.

Discuss estrus induction in the bitch.

Discuss prolonged estrus and shortened interestrus intervals in the bitch.

Discuss vaginitis and the use of vaginal cultures in the bitch.

You are presented with an 8 year old intact bitch that is depressed and has begun to urinate in the house. What is your primary ruleout? What would you do for further diagnostic tests and what would you expect to find? What are your treatments?

Be able to discuss semen collection in the dog.

Be able to discuss the components of a Breeding Soundness Examination in the dog, including criteria for passing.

Be able to list the major causes of infertility in the dog including those of the testes, penis, and prepuce and diagnostic tests to differentiate obstructive from production problems.

Be able to discuss the breeding methods using different types of semen in the dog.

Be able to discuss ovarian remnant in the bitch.

Canine Surgery

Describe the performance of a Caesarian Section in a bitch, including when you would do it and the technique you use.

 Be able to diagnose the prostatic diseases based on clinical signs and test results.

 Know how to treat prostatic hyperplasia.

 Know how to treat prostatic abscesses.

 Understand the surgical treatment options for prostatic cysts.

 Be able to diagnose prostatic neoplasia and counsel a client about it.

 Know the definition of cryptorchidism and the reasons for castration.

 Be familiar with the three testicular neoplasias.

 Know the indications for and complications of orchiectomy.

 Know how to perform prostatic and testicular biopsies.

 Know how to perform a scrotal ablation and cryptorchid surgery.

 Understand the difference between paraphimosis, priapism, and phimosis.

 Recall some penile and preputial neoplasias and recommendations for treatment.

Discuss the basic aspects of ovarian and vulvar surgery.

Know the feline estrous cycle.

Know feline fibroadenometous mammary hypertrophy.

Feline

Be able to discuss the estrous cycle in the cat, including estrus, diestrus, pseudopregnancy, interestrus and anestrus.

Be able to discuss breeding strategies in the cat to maximize fertility.

Be able to discuss pharmacologic methods to induce ovulation in the queen.

Be able to discuss estrus prevention in the cat.

Be able to discuss pyometra and fibroadenometous mammary hyperplasia in the queen.

Be able to discuss the eutocia and dystocia in the queen.

Be able to discuss the basic aspects of investigating feline infertility.

Be able to discuss normal mating behavior in the tom.

Be able to discuss methods of semen collection in the tom. (you do not need to know seen numbers etc in the tom).

Be able to discuss the basic aspects of investigating tom infertility.

Be able to discuss ovarian remnant in the queen.

 

Learner Objectives

Ruminants

Abortion

 

What samples would you take from an aborted fetus to get a potentially pure culture of the causative bacterial agent?

Can one tell by gross examination of an aborted fetus what organism caused the abortion? Explain

Would it be wise to give a live attenuated viral or bacterial vaccine to a pregnant animal?

Why is it advantageous for a bacterial pathogen like Brucella abortus to cause mid to late term abortions?

What samples would you take from an aborted fetus to get a potentially pure culture of the causative bacterial agent?

Can one tell by gross examination of an aborted fetus what organism caused the abortion? Explain

Would it be wise to give a live attenuated viral or bacterial vaccine to a pregnant animal?

Why is it advantageous for a bacterial pathogen like Brucella abortus to cause mid to late term abortions?

 

Bovine

Describe a typical dairy herd health program. Discuss the lactation curve and importance of yearly calving. How often are herd visits? How long is a typical lactation, gestation, dry period and voluntary waiting period? What is a voluntary waiting period?

Describe a basic beef herd health program. How often should a cow calve?

How long should breeding season last? What is the main factor causing post partum anestrus? What are the main factors involved in getting cows bred in a short calving season?

Discuss bovine heat detection. Include the "cardinal sign" and secondary signs. What is the best method of heat detection? What are some commonly used heat detection aids and how do they work? How is heat detection related to artificial insemination?

Describe the stages of the bovine estrous cycle, including duration, hormonal changes, physical & behavioral signs and ovarian structures.

Describe performing the technique of palpation per rectum, with emphasis on indirect retraction of the uterus. Know the major parameters for staging gestation duration. 

Why is rectal palpation considered such a good method for pregnancy diagnosis in the cow? Describe the positive signs of pregnancy in the cow and how you examine a cow for pregnancy.

List and discuss other methods of pregnancy diagnosis in the cow, including ultrasound, milk progesterone, and 'protein B'.

Discuss freemartinism in cows.

List some causes of retained placenta in cows. Why is retained placenta detrimental? How should it be treated?

Define the stages of postpartum uterine involution in cows. Describe events (including time frames) of normal uterine involution.

Describe when and how you would induce parturition in a cow. What methods are available, what are the advantages and disadvantages of each? What are common sequelae to inducing parturition? What would you do to improve chances of getting a viable calf?

Describe clinical signs, consequences, treatment options of postpartum metritis. Compare and contrast puerperal metritis with postpartum metritis found at 21 d postpartum.

Describe clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of uterine torsion in the cow.

Be able to discuss the etiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of hydrops conditions in the cow.

List possible ways to terminate pregnancy in a cow at each stage of gestation. Of the methods identified at each stage, which is preferred and why? Include advantages and disadvantages of the methods.

Compare and contrast fetal mummification and maceration in cows. Include etiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs/diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

Compare and contrast Tichomoniasis and Campylobacter in cows. Include signs, diagnosis and treatments.

Describe a single injection prostaglandin estrous synchronization system, the expected estrual response by day of estrous cycle and results.

Describe a double injection prostaglandin estrous synchronization system and variations thereof, the expected estrual response by day of estrous cycle and results.

Describe a seven day heat detection system and prostaglandin for estrous synchronization, the expected estrual response by day of estrous cycle and results.

Describe the 'synch' systems for estrous synchronization, the expected estrual response by day of estrous cycle and results.

Discuss the use of CIDRS for estrous synchronization in cows.

Discuss the term repeat breeder, including definition and estimating the normal incidence.

Discuss heat stress in cows and how it can be treated.

Discuss pyometra, uterus unicornis and segmental aplasia as causes of anestrus in cows.

Discuss Cystic Ovarian Disease (COD) in Cows

Discuss caesarian section in cattle indications, techniques, approaches, what governs your choice of approaches, uterine incision and closure, alternatives to a C-section to resolve dystocia.

What is the reason for ovariectomy in heifers, most common technique, recommended age/weight for this procedure, and the most common cause of death loss?

Other choices to resolve dystocia in cattle besides C-section?

Discuss basic obstetrical procedures in large animals.

Be able to discuss the components of a Breeding Soundness Examination in the bull, including criteria for passing.

 Be able to list and discuss the major causes of bull infertility.

 Be able to discuss libido testing in bulls and its incorporation into a breeding soundness examination.

 

Small Ruminants

 Describe follicular wave pattern in non-stimulated llamas, including length of the wave, phases, interwave interval, and minimum and maximum diameters of dominant follicles.

Discuss induction of ovulation in camelids, including stimuli, hormonal response to stimuli, interval from copulation to ovulation,  responses in llamas with different follicular diameters and response to a second breeding 24 hs after the first one.

Describe hydrometra in goats.

 Describe toxoplasmosis in sheep and goats (etiology, signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention)

 Describe chlamydiosis in sheep and goats (etiology, signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention)

 Be able to discuss the components of a Breeding Soundness Examination in the ram, including criteria for passing.

 Be able to discuss the major causes of infertility in the ram.

Lactation

Compare and contrast the mammary glands of different species.

 Understand the support structures of the mammary gland, the circulation, nervous innervation and lymphatic flow.

 Be able to describe mammary gland morphology including tracking milk from the alveolus through the streak canal.

 Describe the process of mammary gland development include the necessary hormones and the developmental phases.

 Describe the process of colostral production.

 Describe the process of milk let down and what factors interfere with it.

 List the components of milk and describe its physical characteristics.

 What hormones are effective in enhancing milk production?

 Describe the common developmental defects of the mammary gland.

 What risk factors are associated with physiologic edema?  Differentiate between edema and other disorders of the udder.  How would you treat it?

 Describe the common abnormalities of the teat.  How would you fix them?

 What methods would be used to inhibit lactation or to dry off a gland?

 Describe the common abnormalities of milk secretion.

 

 

 

Dr. Olcott

Sheep and Goats:

      Understand where reproduction fits into the overall function and profitability of a farm.

      Know the estrus cycle of the doe/ewe, including duration of standing estrus and when ovulation occurs.  When is the best time to breed the doe/ewe?

      Describe the mechanisms of seasonal breeding in the doe & ewe.  Why has this system evolved?

      What are the behavioral and physiologic signs of estrus for the doe/ewe?

      What methods of heat detection are appropriate for use on does/ewes.

      How can estrus be synchronized in a flock of goats/ewes?

      How can does/ewes be brought into estrus out of the breeding season.

      Length of gestation in a doe/ewe, how can it be shortened?

      Describe appropriate techniques for pregnancy detection in doe/ewe.

      Describe the duration and activities during normal parturition for a doe/ewe.

      What is the most common dystocia in a doe/ewe? 

      Describe appropriate methods for correcting the common dystocias of does and ewes.

      What are the risk factors for pregnancy toxemia in does and ewes.

      What causes ringwomb in ewes?  How is it managed?

      Describe the seasonal changes in fertility for the buck and the ram.

      Describe the methodology for BSE in the buck and ram and list normal limits.

      Describe courtship and mating in sheep and goats.

      How many ewes can a ram breed under different conditions of maturity and range conditions?

      Describe methodology for AI in does and ewes.   

      What are the most common cause of abortions in goats in North America?

      What samples are needed to make a diagnosis of abortion?

      List the Zoonotic causes of abortion for sheep and goats.  What precautions need to be taken to prevent human endangerment?

      Describe your approach to a flock of sheep that has just experienced their first abortion of the season?  Second abortion?  Third abortion?  Twentieth abortion?

      For each of the following causes of abortion be able to list etiologic agents, clinical signs, diagnostic tests, treatment and prevention; Chlamydia, campylobacter, toxoplasmosis, Q fever, leptospirosis, listeriosis, brucellosis.

      Know the causes of infertility in the ram and the buck and how to diagnosis, treat and prevent them.

 

Anatomy and physiology of the Mammary Gland

      Contrast and compare the mammary glands of the common domestic animals. Describe in detail the anatomy of the bovine mammary gland.  Make sure you can trace the flow of milk from an alveolar cell to the teat streak canal. What anatomical structures are involved in supporting the bovine mammary gland?

      Describe the flow of blood through the mammary gland of a cow (arterial and venous).

      What lymphnodes drain the mammary gland of a cow?

      Which nerves innervate the mammary gland of the cow?

      Describe the development of the mammary gland of a cow from infancy through puberty, gestation, lactation and dry off.

      What hormone is required to milk a cow?

      What hormones are required to maintain milk production?

      Know the common developmental defects of the bovine mammary gland.

      Describe the difference between physiologic edema of the mammary gland and inflammatory edema of the mammary gland.  What are the risk factors associated with physiologic edema of the mammary gland?

      Describe techniques to make a cow cease lactating. 

      List the components of milk and describe its physical characteristics.

      Compare and contrast the mammary glands of different species.

      Describe the process of milk let down and what factors interfere with it.

      What hormones are effective in enhancing milk production? 

      What are the dangers of using Bovine Somatotrophin in dairy cows?

      Describe the common abnormalities of milk secretion.

 

Food Animal Neonatalogy

      List the common causes of fatality for food animal offspring.

      Most losses occur from what cause?

      Most losses occur at what age?

      Describe a program that would minimize calf losses in a beef herd.

      What maternal factors would result in increased levels of neonatal losses?

      Describe how to identify a calvf which has experience a dystocia birth.  What special care will it require to survive?

      Periparturient deaths are divided into Antepartum, Parturient and Postparturient.  Describe how you would distinguish neonates that died in each of these categories. 

      Predators do kill neonates.  Describe the signs that would lead you to believe that a calf died from wounds it received from a predator vs those that would suggest the death was from a scavenger.

      What are the key findings in lambs that are born alive and die from starvation?  

      For your own information: Describe the nomal process of birth, standing, nursing for a beef calf and a dairy calf.  Include the behavioral components.

      Describe neonatal immunology for piglets, lambs, kids and calves.  How do they become immunologically competent?  Describe in depth how we can help them accomplish this task. 

      What are the causes of failure of passive transfer and how it can be prevented?

      What are the special considerations that must be applied to sheep goat and porcine neonates to help them survive?

 

 

 

 

 

Learner Objectives -

Equine Reproduction

 

 

Discuss the equine estrous cycle. Include the stages, duration of the stages, signs, steroid hormones, LH pattern and luteolysis.

 Discuss the normal light year and how it pertains to equine reproduction. What other factors influence the horse.

 Describe anestrus (hormonal, behavioral, and physiologic events)  in the mare.

 Describe the signs and the causes of  spring and fall transition in the mare.

 Discuss induction of cycling in the mare.

 Discuss true polyestrous and silent heat in mares.

 Discuss multiple ovulations in the mare.

 Discuss diestrus ovulations and pseudopregnancy in mares.

 Discuss nymphomania in the mare.

Be able to discuss anovulatory follicles in the mare.

Be able to describe the treatments for spring and fall transition in the mare.

Be able to discuss a breeding soundness exam in a mare - steps taken and why they are performed and the interpretation of the findings.

 Know and understand the reproductive physiology of the mare sufficiently to be able to explain occurrences and to be able to manipulate the cycle to achieve desired goals.

 Be able to plan and describe a breeding with a) natural service, b) artificial insemination with fresh semen, c) artificial insemination with fresh cooled semen, d) frozen semen.  Include monitoring the mare and manipulating the cycle to time breeding, pre-breeding assessment, post-breeding management including exams and therapy (be able to decide if its indicated, if so when and how to treat), pregnancy exams (when).

 Be able to plan and describe an embryo transfer procedure, including recipient preparation.

 Understand the importance of early pregnancy exams, twins and possible alternatives for their management

 Understand the factors involved in infertility and how to manage brood mares to maximize fertility.  Be familiar with the causes of endometritis and how the different etiologies affect treatment choice and prognosis.  Be able to describe diagnosis and prescribe a course of treatment given a case of persistent mating induced endometritis. 

Know the reasons (tumors, normal and abnormal physiologic causes) for ovarian enlargement -including diagnostic features, possible treatments and prognosis.

 Know the features of normal parturition in the mare - how to predict when it will occur, guidelines for recognition and correction/treatment of dystocia, premature placental separation.

 Know how to safely induce parturition in a mare, i.e. guidelines for readiness for birth and methods of induction.

 Be able to recognize, describe and treat the common pre- and postpartum problems in mares (rupture of the prepubic tendon, uterine torsion, retained placenta, prolapsed uterus, metritis/septicemia/laminitis, etc.)

 Be able to discuss the important features of the equine placenta and describe post partum examination of the placenta.

 Know the important causes of pregnancy loss or abortion. Be able to describe clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and preventative measures for EHV, EVA, placentitis, MRLS, twins, fescue toxicity and others discussed.

 Stallion

 Be able to describe a breeding soundness exam in a stallion, listing the steps in order and interpretation of findings.  Also know and understand how you can influence semen quality during the procedures.

 Know the effects of season on the stallion.

 Be able describe preparation of fresh, cooled equine semen, listing the steps in order and be able to do the math

 Be able to discuss the current hypothesis regarding testicular degeneration in the stallion.

 Be able to describe how you could differentiate a gelding from a cryptorchid, tests used, interpretation.

 Understand and be able to discuss causes, diagnosis and treatment for the following conditions in stallions:

hematocele

hydrocele

torsion of the spermatic cord

genital trauma

urospermia

hemospermia

inguinal hernia

 

Neonatology

 Explain the importance of assessing a mare in the last third of gestation as it relates to fetal well-being. Give examples of high-risk mares.

 Regarding physical examination of a newborn foal, give normal parameters for 1 minute after birth and 1-2 hours after birth (include HR, RR, temp., time to suck, normal activities

 Give an example of a direct and indirect cause of perinatal foal mortality, and a specific disease that results from each. For each disease, discuss diagnosis, course of disease, treatment protocol, prognosis, cost of treatment, and expected outcome and prevention for next years foal.

 You are asked to examine an ~8hr. old TB colt born to a mare that has had 4 viable foals in the last 4 years. Describe in detail, the physical exam procedure as well as other post-foaling procedures that you would like to perform. 

 Regarding FPT (IgG) in foals, discuss the following points: diagnosis (including age of foal), normal levels at 24 hrs of age; how to treat; volume to treat depending on IgG level, foal-side testing methods; product availability, method of IgG replacement therapy, reassessment of FPT post-treatment.

 Regarding foal immunity, discuss the following: incidence of FPT in foals, foal immunity at birth, phagocyte function at birth, timing of foal GI tract ability to absorb colostral Abs, predisposing diseases in foal with FPT

 A foal born at < ---- days gestation is immature. Describe the clinical characteristics of a foal that is dysmature/immature/premature. 

 You need to refer a 12 hr. old foal to LSU VTH & C because of extreme lethargy, hypothermia, failure to stand, and intermittent seizure activity. Discuss in detail, your plan to stabilize the foal prior to sending it on a 4-5 hr. drive to Baton Rouge.

 You have just assisted a mare with delivery of a term foal. The dystocia lasted approximately 4 hours. The foals mm are pale and it has a rapid but shallow respiratory rate. The foal does not respond to stimulation. Explain your plan of action and hopeful outcome.

 You have just assisted a mare with delivery of a term foal. The dystocia lasted approximately 4 hours. The foal is not breathing, but the mm are slightly pink, the HR is faint and 120 B/min. Explain your plan of action and hopeful outcome

 You examine a 1.5 day old colt that has been posturing to urinate & continues to strain intermittently. Foal has slight abdominal distension. Owners say its gone on for about 5 hours. Foal is rolling and pawing in between straining. What is your differential diagnosis? What is your plan for diagnosis, treatment, & prognosis for each of the differentials you listed.

Explain the clinical scenario, treatment regime, and prognosis for a foal with hypoxemic/ischemic encephalopathy with and without sepsis.

 Regarding foal septicemia, what are the 3 likely portals of entry, the 4 most likely bacteria involved, the treatment regime, clinical course, and prognosis.

 Regarding R. equi infections in foals, describe the pathogenesis and treatment of the pneumonic form. Explain any possible side effects of treatment options.

 Regarding endemic R. equi infections in foals, describe a prevention and early detection program for a 350 brood mare farm.

 Describe the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and future prevention of equine neonatal isoerythrolysis

 Regarding diarrhea in foals less than 7 days of age, what causative organisms are likely? How do you make a diagnosis and treat foals with enterocolitis?

 Describe the clinical description of a 4 week old foal with gastric ulcer disease. How to make a positive diagnosis, treatment and follow-up care.

 Regarding antimicrobial therapy for neonatal foals, what are the characteristics of the first-line antimicrobial treatments of choice? Name 3 different antibiotic regimens for a 4 day old foal with fever and watery diarrhea. Describe what type of foal monitoring needs to be performed to determine if the antibiotic choice is appropriate.

Be able to recognize, describe and treat the common complications during pregnancy in mares (rupture of the prepubic tendon, hydrops, placentitis, twins, uterine torsion, uterine tear)

 Know the important causes of pregnancy loss or abortion in the mare. Be able to describe clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and preventative measures for EHV, EVA, placentitis, MRLS, twins, fescue toxicity, Leptospirosis, and others discussed.

 Be able to discuss the important features of early embryonic death in mares (time frame of the majority of losses, maternal factors, and embryonic factors).

Be able to discuss the important features of placental insufficiency in the mare (definition, causes, clinical course and outcome, and diagnosis).

 Explain the importance of assessing a mare in the last third of gestation. What modalities are used to determine fetal well-being? What are the reproductive and non-reproductive causes of high-risk pregnancy?

 You have a long-standing client that has decided that having a pregnant mare would be a fun and unique experience. Be able to provide a new client with recommendations for all aspects of optimal care during gestation up to foaling. You will also need to coach your client of things that might go wrong during gestation and foaling what to look for, when to call, etc.

Surgery - Dr. Burba

 Be able to give the incidence and etiology of perineal lacerations in mares.

 Be able to describe the different types of perineal lacerations in mares.

 Be able to describe the treatments of perineal lacerations.

 Be able to give the indications and describe how to perform a Caslicks.

 Be able to describe the indication for a urethroplasty in a mare.

 Be able to describe the etiology, clinical signs, and differential diagnoses for granulosa cell tumor in mares.

 Be able to describe the diagnostics and treatment of granulosa cell tumor in a mare.

 Be able to give the indications and potential complications of a colpotomy in a mare.

  • Be able to describe the different types of surgical methods of removing the testicle in a routine castration.
    • Open
    • Closed
    • Semi-opened
  • Know the difference between parietal and visceral tunic.
  • Be able to describe the surgical technique of performing a routine castration including pertinent points of instrument placement.
  • Be able to list and describe potential post-castration complications.
  • Be familiar with the epidemiology of cryptorchism in the horse.
    • Left vs right
    • Inquinal vs abdominal
  • Be able to describe diagnostic techniques to determine is a horse has a retained testicle.
    • hCG stimulation test
  • Be able to describe surgical approaches to removing a retained testicle.
    • Inguinal approach
    • Laparoscopy
  • Know the common neoplasia of the equine penis and treatment.
    • SCC


 

 

 

 

 

Swine 

Be able to describe the normal parameters of swine reproductive physiology including: estrus cycle, gestation, number of pigs born & weaned, litters per year.

 Develop a vision of the swine industry in the US particularly with as it effects reproduction.

 Describe the techniques which are available to induce estrus in Gilts and lactating sows.

 Describe the techniques which are available to synchronize estrus in cycling sows or gilts.

 What factors delay the onset of estrus in weaned sows?

 Sows are bred in pen mating systems or by hand mating systems.  List the advantages and disadvantages of the two systems.

 Sows are bred by natural breeding and by artificial insemination.  List the advantages and disadvantages of both.

 Compare and contrast the different methods used for pregnancy determination in swine.

 Describe labor and delivery in the normal sow.  When does a normal farrowing become a dystocia?

 Describe the process of assisting birth in a sow.

 How can parturition be induced in sows?  What are the advantages and disadvantages over non-induced farrowings?

 Describe the management of baby pigs.  What is the expected mortality rate, what are the biggest killers and how can they be prevented?

 Sows are subject to what disorders post-parturiently?  How are they diagnosed, treated and prevented?

 Describe a complete BSE on the boar.

 Be familiar with normal parameters of boar sperm including; volume, concentration, motility and morphology.

 How often can a boar be used for mating and how many boars are needed per female?

 Describe the causes of noninfectious infertility in boars.  How can they be prevented?

 Describe the causes of infectious infertility in boars how can they be diagnosed, prevented and treated?

 Prepare a time line for maternal recognition,  implantation, fetal calcification and fetal immunity in the sow.  How will this help you in staging an abortion outbreak?

 Be able to discuss diagnosis, treatment and prevention for all of the major causes of infectious abortion in swine.  You should be able to solicit a history, request and interpret laboratory work, treat and prevent the disease in other sows in the herd.

Describe the variety and the significance of vaginal discharges in sows.

What mycotoxins are capable of causing reproductive problems in sows?    

 

14 September 2010


 

You should this material to a depth presented in your notes and in the text. You should know it well enough to converse with a client about the information.

Please feel free to ask questions (in person or by email) regarding your understanding of this material.

 

contributed by Bruce E Eilts on 25 September 2012




 

To  Main


 

mailto:beilts@lsu.edu

Send an email to ask a question that has not been adequately covered.